QUESTION 1

- What is the F value and p value for spiritual need—patient? What do these results mean?
- What is the post hoc result for facilities for the hospital with LCP vs. the hospital without LCP (see Table 2)? Is this result statistically signiﬁcant? In your opinion, is this an expected ﬁnding?
- What are the assumptions for use of ANOVA?
- What variable on Table 3 has the result F = 10.6, p < 0.0001? What does the result mean?
- ANOVA was used for analysis by Mayland et al. (2014). Would t -tests have also been appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What type of post hoc analysis was performed? Is the post hoc analysis performed more or less conservative than the Scheffé test?
- State the null hypothesis for care for the three study groups (see Table 2). Should the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What are the post hoc results for care? Which results are statistically signiﬁcant? What do the results mean?
- In your opinion, do the study ﬁndings presented in Tables 2 and 3 have implications for end of life care? Provide a rationale for your answer.

QUESTION 2

- Do the data meet criteria for homogeneity of variance? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distribution of the dependent variable, hours worked at a job. What is the shape of the distribution? If using SPSS, what is the result of the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the dependent variable?
- What are the means for three groups’ hours worked on a job?
- What are the F value and the group and error df for this set of data?
- Is the F signiﬁcant at α = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.
- If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining an F value at least as extreme as or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?
- Which group worked the most weekly job hours post-treatment? Provide a rationale for your answer. 8. Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.
- Is there a difference in your ﬁnal interpretation when comparing the results of the LSD post hoc test versus Tukey HSD test? Provide a rationale for your answer.

10. If the researcher decided to combine the two Treatment as Usual groups to represent an overall “Control” group, then there would be two groups to compare: Supported Employment versus Control. What would be the appropriate statistic to address the difference in hours worked between the two groups? Provide a rationale for your answer

** SAMPLE SOLUTION**

Question 1: Degrees of freedom

The degrees of freedom show the number that are allowed to vary in a sample. In the study by Mayland et al. (2014) the degrees of freedom are 252 calculated as the difference between all the observations and the number of variables being compared.

Question 2: F-value and p-value

According to table 3 spiritual need—patient has an F value of 38.1 and p value<0.00001. This result shows that the differences in comparison of Hospice and Hospital Participants’ Scores for Composite Variables Within the ECHO-D Questionnaire in relation to whether spiritual needs of the patients were met are significant at 1% significance level

Question 3: Post hoc result for facilities for the hospital with LCP vs. the hospital without LCP

The difference of mean between facilities for the hospital with LCP vs. the hospital without LCP is 2.2 with Post hoc turkey result for 0.05 which indicates significance at 5%.

Question 4: Assumptions of use of ANOVA

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is based on the following assumptions. Firstly the experimental errors of the data are normally distributed meaning it follows an bell shaped curve which is not skewed. Secondly ANOVA assumes that there is homogeneity of variance between treatments. Thirdly, ANOVA test assumes that the samples under test are independent. In addition the dependent variable should be measured at interval or ratio. There should be no significant outliers

Question 5: Variable identification

In Table 3 of Mayland et al. (2014) symptom management has an F statistic = 10.6, p < 0.0001. This result means that the differences in comparison of Hospice and Hospital Participants’ Scores for Composite Variables Within the ECHO-D Questionnaire are significant at 1% significance level.

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